Logical Fallacies - Part II

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I have been reading through a book on Theology recently. In one of the chapters I came across some fallacies mentioned which I hadn’t known previously. So, I thought to share them. I have documented some logical fallacies from a dedicated book on the subject before.

Now, let’s dive into another set of fallacies.

Dicto Simpliciter

Example: “Exercise is good for you.” While generally true, saying this without considering individual circumstances can be a fallacy. For instance, if someone has a health condition that makes intense exercise risky, the blanket statement “exercise is good for you” overlooks the nuance of their situation.

Contradictory Premises

Example: “I always lie.” If someone claims this statement, it creates a paradox because if it’s true, then it’s false, and if it’s false, then it must be true. This leads to contradictory premises without a clear resolution.

Ad Misericordiam

Example: “You have to give me an A grade on the assignment because my dog ate my homework, and it made me really sad.” This fallacy appeals to pity or sympathy to manipulate a decision instead of presenting valid arguments or evidence.

False Analogy

Example: “Studying is like eating vegetables. Just as you don’t like vegetables but have to eat them for your health, you don’t like studying but have to do it for your grades.” This fallacy incorrectly assumes that two things are similar in all aspects when they are not.

Hypothesis Contrary to Fact

Example: “If I had left the house ten minutes earlier, I would have avoided the traffic jam.” This fallacy relies on speculation about a past event that didn’t happen, presenting it as a fact to draw conclusions based on a hypothetical scenario.

Poisoning the Well

Example: Before a debate, someone says, “Don’t listen to my opponent; he’s a known liar.” By preemptively discrediting the opponent without presenting any actual arguments, this fallacy aims to bias the audience against the opposing viewpoint before any evidence is presented.

These examples illustrate some logical fallacies in a simple and relatable manner to help you understand how faulty reasoning can lead to flawed arguments and conclusions.

If you know any good resources to improve reasoning & critical thinking, please do share. Thank you for taking time to read this.

This is Day 14 of #100DaysToOffload

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